Czochralski process - crystal growth monocrystalline ingots
The Polish chemist Jan Czochralski developed a method for growing monocrystalline structures. Today the Czochralski process is a common production process for monocrystalline silicon ingots.
The method for the production of monocrystalline silicon crystals (ingots) was invented by the Polish chemist Jan Czochralski in 1916 during the investigation of crystallisation rates of metals.
Dipping his pen into a crucible containing liquid tin he obtained single crystal metal needles with diameters up to 1 mm (1).
The technique to produce single crystals was developed further into the Czochralski method.
A rod mounted rotating seed crystal is dipped into the molten silicon and pulled slowly upwards. Controlling the pulling speed an ingot of up to 400mm in diameter and up to 4m in lenght crystalises.
Before the ingot is sliced into wafers material is taken of the sides giving it a polygonal or square shape. Monocristaline silicon transforms 16 - 17 % of the solar radiation into electric power.